Know Eye Refraction Disorders and How to Prevent Them

Know Eye Refraction Disorders and How to Prevent Them

Eye refraction is the process of entering light from the front of the eye (cornea, pupil, retina) to refract it right on the retina (back of the eye). That way, objects can be seen clearly. The most common vision problem is an eye refractive error. People who have problems with eye refraction will complain of blurry vision when looking at objects that are far, near, or both.

Types of Refractive Eyes

1. Far Far (Miopi)

People with nearsightedness or myopia can see objects that are far away clearly, but have difficulty seeing objects that are far away. This condition occurs when light entering the eye falls in front of the retina. Severe myopia can increase the risk of retinal detachment, cataracts, and glaucoma.

2. Farsightedness (hypermetropy)

Farsightedness is the opposite of myopia. People with farsightedness or hypermetropy can see objects that are far away clearly, but have difficulty seeing objects that are close. This condition makes the sufferer find it difficult to read writing that is close to the eye. Farsightedness occurs when light entering the eye falls behind the retina. Farsightedness can also cause eye muscle strain, so that sufferers easily get dizzy and have headaches.

3. Cylindrical eye (Astigmatism)

Cylindrical eye conditions can occur together with farsightedness and farsightedness. Cylindrical eye or astigmatism is a vision disorder that occurs due to defects in the cornea or lens arch. This condition causes vision to be blurred or shaded, both when looking at objects that are near or far away.

4. Old eyes (Presbyopia)

Old eye or presbyopia is a condition that occurs when the lens of the eye becomes stiff, making it difficult to refract and focus light on the retina of the eye. This stiffness of the eye lens occurs due to the aging process. This condition is normal for the elderly or adults over 45 years of age.

Signs and Symptoms of Eye Refractive Disorders

There are various signs and symptoms of an eye refractive error, but the most common is not being able to see objects clearly. Some of the common signs and symptoms of refractive errors include:

  • Blurred or ghosting vision
  • Often squinting to see objects clearly
  • It's hard to focus when reading books, watching TV, and looking at computer or gadget screens
  • Eyes like fog
  • Eyes sensitive or glare to too bright lighting
  • Eyes glare or see halos around bright light
  • Headache
  • Eyes are strained

Risk Factors for Eye Refraction Disorders

Anyone can actually experience refractive errors. However, there are several risk factors that cause visual disturbances, namely:

Genetics or heredity
Having a family member who has myopic eyes increases your risk of experiencing the same thing.

Most cases of nearsightedness begin as a child. While presbyopia is a vision disorder that generally affects people aged 40 years or more.

Eye disease or other genetic disorders
If you experience cataracts or glaucoma, complications of other diseases such as diabetes, and genetic disorders in the eye, then Friends of Hermina are at risk of experiencing refractive errors.

Prevention of Refractive Eye Disorders

Tips for preventing eye refractive errors can be done by implementing eye health behaviors, including:

  1. Read in a sitting position with sufficient lighting, the distance between the eyes and the book is at least 30 cm

  2. Resting your eyes after 1-2 hours of activity with your eyes (reading, watching television, using computers, etc.)

  3. Consume a healthy and nutritionally balanced diet


If Friends of Hermina experience complaints about the eyes, immediately consult an ophthalmologist at Hermina Pandanaran Hospital. Get easy information on practice schedules and doctor registration via the Hermina website.

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